Foot and Ankle Examination
Foot and Ankle conditions typically occur due to injury of the muscles, ligaments or bones, due to aging, or certain disorders including gout, bunion, arthritis, claw toes, bursitis, hammertoes, stress fracture, etc.
Ankle arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which an arthroscope, a small, soft, flexible tube with a light and video camera at the end, is inserted into the ankle joint to evaluate and treat a variety of conditions. The camera projects an image of the inside of the joint onto a large monitor, allowing your surgeon to look for any damage, assess the type of injury and repair the problem.
Achilles Tendon Repair
The Achilles tendon is often injured during sports activities, resulting in an inflammatory condition called tendonitis, which is characterized by swelling and pain. In some cases, severe injury results in a tear or rupture of the Achilles tendon, requiring immediate medical attention.
Ankle Ligament Reconstruction
An ankle sprain is a common injury that occurs when you fall, suddenly twist the ankle joint or when you land your foot in an awkward position after a jump. It most commonly occurs when you participate in sports or when you jump or run on a surface that is irregular.
Ankle Instability Surgery
Ankle instability surgery is performed to treat an unstable ankle and involves the repair or replacement of a torn or stretched ligament. Ankle instability usually results from repeated ankle sprains. Inadequate healing of a sprained ligament or incomplete rehabilitation of the affected ligament can result in instability.
Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation System (OATS) of the Ankle
OATS of the ankle is a surgical procedure to treat Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus (OCL) or Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD). It involves the transfer of healthy cartilage to replace the damaged cartilage and restore the normal function of the foot. The cartilage can be taken from your ankle joint (autograft) for smaller defects. An allograft (graft from a donor) is considered for large defects.
A cyst is a small irregular, non-cancerous sac-like structure filled with fluid or pus. It may be found in any part of the body including the foot. Cysts are caused due to infection, trauma, or blocked oil glands. They usually grow slowly and have a smooth surface.
Minimally Invasive Bunion Surgery
Minimally invasive bunion surgery, also known as keyhole bunion surgery, is a procedure to treat a foot condition called a bunion or hallux valgus. During minimally invasive bunion surgery, a few small incisions are made to access the bone around the bunion, as opposed to a much larger incision made during an open bunion surgery that cuts across layers of tissue around the bone, causing more postoperative pain, a larger scar, and damage to the surrounding soft tissues.
Foot injections are steroids that are injected into your foot to relieve pain and inflammation. Cortisol is a hormone that is produced in the human body and functions to reduce stress and inflammation. Steroids are synthetic drugs that resemble cortisol and are used in treating joint pain. Steroid injections are often combined with other treatment options such as physical therapy, other medications, occupational therapy, etc.
Big Toe Motion Preservation Surgery
Big toe motion preservation surgery is a procedure employed for the treatment of a stiff big toe. A stiff big toe, also called hallux rigidus, is a form of degenerative arthritis affecting the joint where the big toe (hallux) attaches to the foot. The toe typically becomes stiff at the base and is sometimes called a “frozen joint”. The big toe joint is called the hallux metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint.
Heel surgery is a procedure performed to treat heel pain and loss of motion that is caused due to injury, inflammation, and irritation of the foot muscles, bones, or the connective tissue attached to the heel. It is usually the last line of treatment when non-surgical therapies such as anti-inflammatory medications, orthotics, physical therapy, and injections fail to relieve painful symptoms.
The feet help maintain proper posture and allow movement. As the feet bear the entire weight of the body and are involved in most activities, they are more prone to problems such as calluses, corns, cracks, infections, and traumatic injuries. To maintain healthy feet, you should always wear comfortable, good quality and properly fitting footwear.
Foot reconstruction is a surgery performed to correct the structures of the foot and restore the natural functionality of the foot that has been lost due to injury or illness. Ideally, any foot surgery for reconstruction is done to improve the appearance and function of the foot so that you can maintain your quality of life.
Ankle Joint Replacement
Ankle joint replacement, also known as total ankle arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pain and immobility due to severe end-stage arthritis that has not responded to non-surgical treatments. The goal of ankle joint replacement surgery is to eliminate your pain and increase the mobility of your ankle joint.
The subtalar joint is a complex joint located below the ankle joint and is formed by the union of the heel (calcaneus) and the talus (ankle) bone. The subtalar joint allows side-to-side movement of the foot.
Midfoot fusion is a surgical procedure most commonly employed for the treatment of midfoot arthritis. Arthritis is the inflammation of joints as a result of degeneration of the smooth cartilage that lines the ends of bones in a joint. This degeneration of the cartilages leads to painful rubbing of the bones, swelling, and stiffness in the joints, resulting in restricted and painful movements.
Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery
Minimally invasive foot surgery (MIFS) uses the latest advanced technology to treat foot and ankle pain caused by a variety of conditions. Special surgical instruments, devices, and advanced imaging techniques are used to visualize and perform the surgery through small incisions.
A bunionette, commonly known as a tailor’s bunion, is a bony lump on the outside of the base of the little toe. This is generally caused by the shift or enlargement of the joint connecting the fifth metatarsal bone on the outside of the foot to the base of the little toe. In some cases, this may be caused by the formation of a bone spur along the fifth metatarsal bone head.
Foot reconstruction is a surgery performed to correct the structures of the foot and restore the natural functionality of the foot that has been lost due to injury or illness. Flatfoot or pes planus is a condition in which the foot does not have a normal arch when standing.
Ankle arthrodesis is the surgical fusion of bones that form the ankle joint. The ankle joint is formed by the tibia, talus, and the fibula bones. The goal of ankle arthrodesis is to relieve pain in the affected joint. This is achieved by surgically eliminating the joint.
Metatarsal surgery is a surgical procedure performed on the metatarsal bones, the long bones in the feet that connect to the toe bones. It is usually performed to correct a bunion deformity and is mainly done on the first metatarsal bone behind the big toe. Surgery on the second to fifth metatarsal bones is usually performed to treat callouses or ulcers at the bottom of the foot.
Plantar Fascia Release
Plantar fascia release is a surgical procedure to treat moderate to severe plantar fasciitis, in which your surgeon releases or removes the diseased section of the plantar fascia tissue to relieve pain and inflammation in the foot. Plantar fasciitis is a condition where the plantar fascia becomes inflamed from overstretching or overuse, causing pain in the heel and bottom of the foot.
Ankle fusion, also known as ankle arthrodesis, is a surgical procedure commonly employed for the treatment of ankle arthritis in which the joint cartilage is severely damaged. The procedure involves fusion of the bones that form the ankle joint into one piece, which eliminates joint motion and relieves pain originating from the arthritic joint.
A bunionectomy is a surgical procedure to remove a bunion. A bunion, also called a hallux valgus, is an enlargement of bone or soft tissues around the joint at the base of the big toe that results in the formation of a bump. The bone that joins the big toe with the first metatarsal bone thickens and enlarges, tightening the tendons, which in turn causes the base of the big toe to angle out resulting in a painful bony deformity.
Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of the Foot
Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of the foot is a surgical procedure performed to repair serious fractures (broken bones) of the foot that cannot be fixed with a splint or a cast. Open reduction refers to making an open incision (long surgical cut) to reach the broken bones and reposition or realign them back into their normal position.
Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of the Ankle
Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of the ankle is a surgical procedure performed to repair serious fractures (broken bones) of the ankle. It is performed on one or more of the three bones that form the ankle joint. Open reduction refers to making an open incision (long surgical cut) to access the broken bones and reposition or realign them into their normal position.
Revision Foot and Ankle Surgery
Foot and ankle surgery is performed when injuries or conditions are severe and conservative treatment methods are inadequate. It may involve repairing, realigning, or reconstructing structures in the foot and ankle. The procedure is safe and outcomes are generally good, but occasionally failure may occur due to various reasons. Revision foot and ankle surgery is recommended to correct problems and to improve results.
Cavus Foot Reconstruction
Cavus foot reconstruction is a deformity correction surgery to treat cavus foot which is also called pes cavus or high arches. Cavus foot occurs when the arch on the bottom of the foot that runs from the toes to the heel is arched more than normal. This causes pain and instability in the foot while walking, standing, and running.
Foot and Ankle Cartilage Repair
Foot and ankle cartilage repair is a surgical procedure to restore the damaged cartilage in the foot and ankle joint. Cartilage repair can be performed either through a single long incision called the open approach or via a minimally invasive approach called arthroscopy. Two or more small incisions are made in the foot and ankle joint and an arthroscope is made inserted to aid in the surgical repair.
Foot & Ankle Deformity Correction
Foot and ankle deformity is the structural abnormality caused by misalignment of the bones of the foot and ankle.
Toe exercises improve foot flexibility and strength and can help alleviate muscle soreness caused by the stress exerted on the foot each day. Healthy toes also improve your balance and reduce your risk of falls. Here are some gentle strengthening and stretching exercises that you can perform 2-3 times a week.
Foot and Ankle Rehabilitation
The foot is composed of different structures including bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. As the feet bear the weight of our body, they are more prone to injury and pain. A foot injury or foot surgery may leave you immobile for a period of time. After any injury or surgery to your foot, a rehabilitation program will help you get back to your daily activities quicker.
A bunion, also known as hallux valgus, is a condition characterized by a bony extension that develops at the base of the big toe due to the misalignment of the metatarsal bones or by the formation of additional bone in this area. Inflammation occurs in the enlarged joint which may be accompanied by progressively increasing tenderness and pain.
High heels have been worn by many women for years to look taller and nowadays they are commonly worn as part of a fashion statement. Women wearing high heels appear taller with longer legs; however, this causes postural changes which bring a host of health issues when high heels are worn too frequently.
Non-Surgical Treatment for Foot and Ankle Pain
The foot and ankle form complex joints involved in movement and providing stability and balance to the body. The foot is composed of different structures including bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. As the feet bear the weight of our body, they are more prone to injury and pain. Normally, foot pain can be treated with home treatments but may take time to heal.
Foot orthotics also known as orthoses are specially designed supportive shoe inserts worn against the foot to relieve pain, provide protection, and treat foot or ankle deformities. They are available in multiple sizes and shapes to deliver prescription-based foot correction or may be custom-made with the help of a plaster cast or computer-aided 3D imaging of the foot.