Rotator Cuff Tear
Anterior Shoulder Instability
Anterior shoulder instability, also known as anterior glenohumeral instability, is a condition in which damage to the soft tissues or bone causes the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) to dislocate or sublux from the glenoid fossa, compromising the function of the shoulder.
The term SLAP (superior –labrum anterior-posterior) lesion or SLAP tear refers to an injury of the superior labrum of the shoulder.
Shoulder Labral Tear
Traumatic injury to the shoulder or overuse of the shoulder (throwing, weightlifting) may cause the labrum to tear. In addition, aging may weaken the labrum leading to injury.
Sports that involve overhead movements and repeated use of the shoulder at your workplace may lead to sliding of the upper arm bone from the glenoid.
Shoulder Ligament Injuries
Shoulder ligament injuries are injuries to the tough elastic tissues present around the shoulder that connect bones to each other and stabilize the joint.
A break in a bone that makes up the shoulder joint is called a shoulder fracture.
Fractures of the glenoid are rare but can occur due to major trauma or during high-energy sports activities.
Shoulder bursitis, also known as subacromial bursitis, is a condition characterized by pain and inflammation in the bursa of the shoulder.
AC Joint Separation
AC joint separation, also known as shoulder separation, is a condition characterized by damage to the ligaments that connect the acromion to the collar bone.
The shoulder is the most flexible joint in the body that enables a wide range of movements. Aging, trauma or sports activities can cause injuries and disorders that can range from minor sprains or strains to severe shoulder trauma.
Biceps Tendon Rupture
Rotator Cuff Bursitis
Rotator Cuff Pain
The rotator cuff consists of a group of tendons and muscles that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint. These tendons allow a wide range of movement of the shoulder joint across multiple planes.
Subacromial Impingement Syndrome
SAIS is the inflammation and irritation of your rotator cuff tendons. This occurs when the tendons rub against the outer end of the shoulder blade (the acromion) while passing through the subacromial space during shoulder movement.
The shoulder is a highly mobile ball and socket joint. The ball of the upper arm bone (humerus) is held in place at the socket (glenoid) of the shoulder blade (scapula) by a group of ligaments. A partial dislocation of the shoulder joint is termed as a subluxation. This means the ball has partially moved out of the glenoid as opposed to a dislocation, where the ball completely moves out of the glenoid.
Snapping scapula or snapping scapula syndrome is also known as scapulothoracic syndrome or scapulocostal syndrome. It is a condition characterized by painful clicking, snapping, or grinding of the shoulder blade. The sound occurs as a result of rubbing of soft tissues between the thoracic wall and the scapula. The soft tissues stuck in between these two structures may be a muscle, tendon, or bursa.
Arthritis of the Shoulder
The term arthritis literally means inflammation of a joint but is generally used to describe any condition in which there is damage to the cartilage. Damage of the cartilage in the shoulder joint causes shoulder arthritis. Inflammation is the body's natural response to injury. The warning signs that inflammation presents are redness, swelling, heat, and pain.
Little League Shoulder
Little league shoulder is an injury to the growth plate of the upper arm bone at the shoulder joint of children. It is an overuse injury caused by repeated pitching or throwing, especially in children between the ages of 10 to 15 years. This condition is mostly seen in baseball pitchers, but children in other sports who use improper throwing action are also at risk.
Rotator Cuff Arthropathy
The rotator cuff consists of 4 muscles that stabilize the ball and socket joint of the shoulder during movement. Large tears in the rotator cuff can lead to joint instability and slipping of the ball (end of the upper arm bone or humerus) out of the socket (the glenoid fossa of the shoulder).
Fracture of the Shoulder Blade (Scapula)
The scapula (shoulder blade) is a flat, triangular bone providing attachment to the muscles of the back, neck, chest, and arm. The scapula has a body, neck, and spine portion. Scapular fractures are uncommon but do occur and require a large amount of force to fracture. They are usually the result of intense trauma, such as a high-speed motor vehicle accident or a fall from a height onto one’s back.
Shoulder injuries most commonly occur in athletes participating in sports such as swimming, tennis, pitching, and weightlifting. The injuries are caused due to the over usage or repetitive motion of the arms.
The break or fracture of the clavicle (collarbone) is a common sports injury associated with contact sports such as football and martial arts, as well as impact sports such as motor racing. A direct blow over the shoulder that may occur during a fall on an outstretched arm or a motor vehicle accident may cause the clavicle bone to break.
Shoulder synovitis is an inflammatory condition of the synovium or synovial membrane, the inner layer of the capsule in the shoulder joint. The joint capsule is located in the upper & lower limb joints providing lubrication in order to avoid friction during movements. It is made up of two layers, an outer tough fibrous layer called the fibrous stratum and an inner soft layer called the synovial stratum.
Proximal Biceps Tendinitis
Proximal biceps tendinitis is the irritation and inflammation of the biceps tendon at the shoulder joint. The biceps muscle is the muscle of the upper arm which is necessary for the movement of the shoulder and elbow. It is made of a ‘short head’ and a ‘long head’ which function together. The long head of the biceps tendon is attached at the top of the shoulder joint. The short head is attached to your shoulder blade.
Shoulder tendonitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the tendons which connect the muscles to the shoulder bones. Tendonitis of the rotator cuff tendons is known as rotator cuff tendonitis. If the biceps tendon is affected, the condition is known as bicipital tendonitis.
Acromioclavicular (AC) Arthritis
The acromioclavicular joint is part of the shoulder joint. It is formed by the union of the acromion, a bony process of the shoulder blade, and the outer end of the collar bone or clavicle. The joint is lined by cartilage that gradually wears with age as well as with repeated overhead or shoulder level activities such as basketball. The condition is referred to as AC arthritis or acromioclavicular arthritis.
Rotator Cuff Calcification
Rotator cuff calcification is the abnormal accumulation of calcium deposits in rotator cuff muscles and tendons. The rotator cuff is a group of 4 muscles and tendons in the shoulder joint that join the head of the humerus to the shoulder. It forms a sleeve around the humeral head and glenoid cavity, providing additional stability to the shoulder joint while enabling a wide range of mobility.
Acromioclavicular Joint Sprains
The collarbone and the shoulder blade are connected by the acromioclavicular joint. This is supported by a strong band of ligaments called the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments. These ligaments are tightly wound around the bones, providing strength and support to the joint. An injury or tear of these ligaments can result in an acromioclavicular joint sprain.
Partial Rotator Cuff Tear
A partial rotator cuff tear is an incomplete tear that involves damage to a part of the tendon. The tear can be at the top, bottom or inner side of the tendon and does not go all the way through the tendon completely. A rotator cuff is a group of 4 muscles in the shoulder joint that include the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis.
Shoulder Labral Tear with Instability
The shoulder consists of a ball-and-socket joint formed by the upper end of the humerus (upper arm bone) and a cavity in the shoulder blade called the glenoid. The glenoid cavity is surrounded by a rim of cartilage called the labrum. The labrum adds depth to the cavity making the joint more stable and positions the ball within the socket.
Sternoclavicular(SC) Joint Injuries
The sternoclavicular joint, commonly called the SC joint, is located between the breastbone (sternum) and the collarbone (clavicle). Sternoclavicular joint injuries can occur due to severe trauma or direct blows to the body as seen in motor vehicle accidents or in contact sports, where there is stretching or tearing of the supporting ligaments, and sometimes even fractures or dislocations.
Multidirectional Instability of the Shoulder
Instability may be described by the direction in which the humerus is subluxated or dislocated from the glenoid. When it occurs in several directions it is referred to as multidirectional instability.
Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation (Shoulder Separation)
A dislocation occurs when the ends of your bones are partially or completely moved out of their normal position in a joint. A partial dislocation is referred to as a subluxation, whereas a complete separation is referred to as a dislocation. AC joint dislocation is the separation of the collar bone or clavicle from the acromion (the top portion of the shoulder blade or scapula at the outer edge of the shoulder) due to severe trauma or injury.
Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint Injuries
The acromioclavicular (AC) joint in the shoulder is very important for shoulder strength, motion, and maintaining shoulder position. The joint is stabilized by various ligaments and a capsule, which can cause pain and affect normal joint function if damaged.
Periprosthetic Shoulder Fracture
A periprosthetic shoulder fracture is a fracture that occurs in the bone adjacent to a shoulder prosthesis.